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Veto

A veto is the power to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation. A veto can be absolute, as for instance in the United Nations Security Council, whose permanent members can block any resolution, or it can be limited, as in the legislative process of the United States, where a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate will override a Presidential veto of legislation. A veto may give power only to stop changes, like the US legislative veto, or to also adopt them, like the legislative veto of the Indian President, which allows him to propose amendments to bills returned to the Parliament for reconsideration. The concept of a veto body originated with the Roman offices of consul and tribune of the plebs. There were two consuls every year; either consul could block a military or civil action by the other. The tribunes had the power to unilaterally block any action by a Roman magistrate or the decrees passed by the Roman Senate.

                                               

Bonus Bill of 1817

The Bonus Bill of 1817 was legislation proposed by John C. Calhoun to earmark the revenue "bonus", as well as future dividends, from the recently established Second Bank of the United States for an internal improvements fund. Opposition to the bill came from sectional rivalries in the older eastern states, fearing that providing the means for settlers to travel west would drain their population and create competing states in less settled areas, including the Louisiana Purchase, and from questions of the bills constitutionality. Proponents of the bill stressed the nearly universally accepted need for improvements and brushed off strict constructionists with their own arguments in favor of "implied powers." Although President James Madison approved of the need and stated goals of improvements, he vetoed the bill as unconstitutional because he finds no expressed congressional power to fund roads and canals in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution; his veto message represents an important explication by the "Father of the Constitution."

                                               

Clinton v. City of New York

Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417, is a legal case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the line-item veto as granted in the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 violated the Presentment Clause of the United States Constitution because it impermissibly gave the President of the United States the power to unilaterally amend or repeal parts of statutes that had been duly passed by the United States Congress. The decision of the Court, in a six-to-three majority, was delivered by Justice John Paul Stevens.

                                               

Frankenstein veto

A Frankenstein veto occurs when an American state Governor selectively deletes words from a bill, stitching together the remainder to form a new bill different from that passed by the legislature. In 2008, the state Constitution of Wisconsin was amended to place certain restrictions on the Frankenstein veto. With those changes, the governor of Wisconsin still has far greater veto powers than any other governor in the United States of America.

                                               

Heckler's veto

In American free speech, a hecklers veto is a situation in which a party who disagrees with a speakers message is able to unilaterally trigger events that result in the speaker being silenced. In the legal sense, a hecklers veto occurs when the speakers right is curtailed or restricted by the government in order to prevent a reacting partys behavior. The common example is the termination of a speech or demonstration in the interest of maintaining the public peace based on the anticipated negative reaction of someone opposed to that speech or demonstration. The term hecklers veto was coined by University of Chicago professor of law Harry Kalven. Colloquially, the concept is invoked in situations where hecklers or demonstrators silence a speaker without intervention of the law.

                                               

Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha

Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919, was a United States Supreme Court case ruling in 1983 that the one-house legislative veto violated the constitutional separation of powers.