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Afghan Interim Administration

The Afghan Interim Administration, also known as the Afghan Interim Authority, was the first administration of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime and was the highest authority of the country from 22 December 2001 until 13 July 2002.


Afghan Transitional Administration


Alash Orda


Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic

The Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic was the government-in-exile of the Algerian National Liberation Front during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence.


Azad Hind

The Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Azad Hind, was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore during World War II. It was created in October 1943 and supported by–as well as largely dependent on–the Empire of Japan. It was a part of a political movement originating in the 1940s outside India with the purpose of allying with the Axis powers to liberate India from British rule. It was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the latter part of the Second World War in Singapore with monetary, military and political assistance from Imperial Japan. Founded on 21 October 1943, the government was inspired by the concepts of Subhas Chandra Bose who was also the leader of the government and Head of State. The government proclaimed authority over Indian civilian and military personnel in Southeast Asian British colonial territory and prospective authority over Indian territory to fall to the Japanese forces and the Indian National Army during the Japanese thrust towards India. The government of Azad Hind had its own currency, court and civil code, and in the eyes of some Indians its existence gave a greater legitimacy to the independence struggle against the British. However, while it possessed all the nominal requisites of a legitimate government, it lacked large and definite areas of sovereign territory until Japan gave it nominal authority of the Japanese occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1943. Japanese officials made all the decisions, and throughout its existence, it was entirely dependent on Japanese support. Immediately after the formation of the puppet government, Free India declared war against the Allied forces on the Indo-Burma Front. Its army, the Indian National Army Azad Hind Fauj, went into action against the British Indian Army and the allied forces as part of the Imperial Japanese Army in the Imphal-Kohima sector. The INA had its first major engagement at the Battle of Imphal where, under the command of the Japanese Fifteenth Army, it breached the British defences in Kohima, reaching the salient of Moirang before suffering a catastrophic defeat as the Allied forces held, and Allied air dominance and compromised supply lines forced both the Japanese and the INA to retreat. The existence of Azad Hind was essentially coterminous with the existence of the Indian National Army. While the government itself continued until the civil administration of the Andaman Islands was returned to the jurisdiction of the British towards the end of the war, the limited power of Azad Hind was effectively ended with the surrender of the last major contingent of INA troops in Rangoon. The death of Bose is seen as the end of the entire Azad Hind Movement. The legacy of Azad Hind is, however, open to judgment. After the war, the Raj observed with alarm the transformation of the perception of Azad Hind from traitors and collaborators to "the greatest among the patriots". Given the tide of militant nationalism that swept through India and the resentment and revolts it inspired, it is arguable that its overarching aim, to foster public resentment and revolts within the Indian forces of the British Indian Army to overthrow the Raj, was ultimately successful.


Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic or Bessarabian SSR was a failed attempt of the Soviet Russia to establish its control over territory of historical Bessarabia in 1919. The state with this name never came into existence, apart from a brief rebellion in September 1924.