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National security

National security or national defense is the security and defense of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now widely understood to include also non-military dimensions, including the security from terrorism, minimization of crime, economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber-security etc. Similarly, national security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, by narcotic cartels, and by multinational corporations, and also the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political, economic, and military power, as well as diplomacy, to safeguard the security of a nation-state. They may also act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, and nuclear proliferation.

                                               

Security agency

A security agency is a governmental organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation. They are the domestic cousins of foreign intelligence agencies, and typically conduct counterintelligence to thwart other countries foreign intelligence efforts. For example, the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation is the internal intelligence, security and law enforcement agency, while the Central Intelligence Agency is an external intelligence service, which deals primarily with intelligence collection overseas. A similar relationship exists in Britain between MI5 and MI6. The distinction, or overlap, between security agencies, national police, and gendarmerie organizations varies by country. For example, in the United States, one organization, the FBI, is a national police, an internal security agency, and a counterintelligence agency. In other countries, separate agencies exist, although the nature of their work causes them to interact. For example, in France, the Police nationale and the Gendarmerie nationale both handle policing duties, and the Direction centrale du renseignement interieur handles counterintelligence. Likewise, the distinction, or overlap, between military and civilian security agencies varies between countries. In the United States, the FBI and CIA are civilian agencies, although they have various paramilitary traits and have professional relationships with the U.S.s military intelligence organizations. In many countries all intelligence efforts answer to the military, whether by official design or at least on a de facto basis. Countries where various military and civilian agencies divide responsibilities tend to reorganize their efforts over the decades to force the various agencies to cooperate more effectively, integrating or at least coordinating their efforts with some unified directorate. For example, after many years of turf wars, the member agencies of the United States Intelligence Community are now coordinated by the Director of National Intelligence, with the hope to reduce stovepiping of information. In Ireland, for example, intelligence operations relevant to internal security are conducted by the military G2 and police SDU, rather than civilian agencies. Security agencies frequently have "security", "intelligence" or "service" in their names. Private organizations that provide services similar to a security agency might be called a "security company" or "security service", but those terms can also be used for organizations that have nothing to do with intelligence gathering.

                                               

Advance Passenger Information System

Advance Passenger Information System or APIS is an electronic data interchange system established by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, APIS governs the provision of a limited number of data elements identification details from the passport and basic flight information from commercial airline and vessel operators to the computer system of the destination state. Required information should conform to specifications for UN/EDIFACT Passenger List Message PAXLST formats. Beginning in May 2009, private aircraft pilots must also provide the necessary information to the CBP. The regulations were put into effect in December 2008 with a 180-day voluntary compliance period. eAPIS electronic APIS is a public website which allows small commercial carriers to transmit data to the CBP electronically. When travelling to or from certain countries, passengers are required to provide advance passenger information API before they check in or they will be unable to fly. These countries include The required information consists of: Address of the first night spent in the US Travel document number expiry date and country of issue for passport Gender Date of birth Nationality Travel document type normally passport Full name Country of residence

                                               

Climate security

Climate-related security risks have far-reaching implications for the way the world manages peace and security. Climate security is a concept that summons the idea that climate-related change amplifies existing risks in society that endangers the security of humans, ecosystems, economy, infrastructure and societies. Also climate actions to adapt and mitigate impacts can have a negative effect on human security if mishandled.

                                               

Compartmentalization (information security)

Compartmentalization, in information security, whether public or private, is the limiting of access to information to persons or other entities on a need-to-know basis to perform certain tasks. It originated in the handling of classified information in military and intelligence applications. It dates back to antiquity, and was successfully used to keep the secret of Greek fire. The basis for compartmentalization is the idea that, if fewer people know the details of a mission or task, the risk or likelihood that such information will be compromised or fall into the hands of the opposition is decreased. Hence, varying levels of clearance within organizations exist. Yet, even if someone has the highest clearance, certain "compartmentalized" information, identified by codewords referring to particular types of secret information, may still be restricted to certain operators, even with a lower overall security clearance. Information marked this way is said to be codeword–classified. One famous example of this was the Ultra secret, where documents were marked "Top Secret Ultra": "Top Secret" marked its security level, and the "Ultra" keyword further restricted its readership to only those cleared to read "Ultra" documents. Compartmentalization is now also used in commercial security engineering as a technique to protect information such as medical records.

                                               

Counter-terrorism

Counter-terrorism, also known as antiterrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. Counter-terrorism strategy is a governments plan to use the instruments of national power to neutralize terrorists, their organizations, and their networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instill fear and to coerce the government or its citizens to react in accordance with the terrorists’ goals. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. At a workshop of experts at RAND in October 2019 which included David Kilcullen, Ben Connable and Christine Wormuth, the U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Mick Mulroy officially rolled out the Irregular Warfare Annex and said it was a critical component of the U.S. 2018 National Defense Strategy. He explained that irregular warfare IW included counter-insurgency COIN, counter-terrorism CT, unconventional warfare UW, foreign internal defense FID, sabotage and subversion, as well as stabilization warfare and information operations IO, among other areas. He continued, that IW was perceived as primarily the CT effort used to fight violent extremist organizations as that has been the focus since 2001, but it should be applied to all areas of military competition. These areas include the global powers competitors of China and Russia as well as the rogue states of North Korea and Iran. Mulroy emphasized that the U.S. must be prepared to respond with "aggressive, dynamic, and unorthodox approaches to IW" to be competitive across these priorities.