Топ-100 ⓘ Encyclopedia - Presidencies - Wiki Did you know?
Back

ⓘ Encyclopedia | Presidencies - Wiki ..




                                               

Presidency

A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. Although often the executive branch of government, and often personified by a single elected person who holds the office of "president", in practice, the presidency includes a much larger collective of people, such as chiefs of staff, advisers and other bureaucrats. Although often led by a single person, presidencies can also be of a collective nature, such as the presidency of the European Union is held on a rotating basis by the various national governments of the member states. Alternatively, the term presidency can also be applied to the governing authority of some churches, and may even refer to the holder of a non-governmental office of president in a corporation, business, charity, university, etc. or the institutional arrangement around them. For example, "the presidency of the Red Cross refused to support his idea." Rules and support to discourage vicarious liability leading to unnecessary pressure and the early termination of term have not been clarified. These may not be as yet supported by state let initiatives. Contributory liability and fraud may be the two most common ways to become removed from term of office and/or to prevent re-election

                                               

Presidency of Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad served as the President of Syria from 1970 until his death in 2000. As of 2015, he is the longest-serving Syrian head of state. He was succeeded by his son, Bashar al-Assad.

                                               

Cuba under Fidel Castro

Under the rule of Fidel Castro, the nation of Cuba underwent significant economic, political, and social changes. In the Cuban Revolution, Castro and an associated group of revolutionaries toppled the ruling government of Fulgencio Batista, forcing Batista out of power on 1 January 1959. Castro, who had already been an important figure in Cuban society, went on to serve as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976. He was also the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state from 1961 to 2011. In 1976, Castro officially became President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers. He retained the title until 2008, when the presidency was transferred to his brother, Raul Castro, but retained his position of Party First Secretary until 2011. Fidel Castros staunch belief in a communist ideology and his criticisms of other international figures elevated the prominence of his rule. He launched a wide range of economic and social changes. Castros Cuba became a key element within the Cold War struggle between the United States and its allies versus the Soviet Union and its allies. Events such as the Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, in which American-connected forces failed to topple Castros administration, continue to attract attention from historians as well as laypeople worldwide. Castro died of natural causes in late 2016 in Havana. He had dealt with severe health problems for the past decade, remarking publicly about struggles with mobility and other issues. Even after his death, Castros ideas continue to be the foundation of Cuban government.

                                               

Presidency of Hamid Karzai

The Karzai administration was the government of Afghanistan under President Hamid Karzai, who became the head of state of Afghanistan in December 2001 after the Taliban government was overthrown. Karzai was appointed at the 2002 Loya Jirga as the Interim President of the Afghan Transitional Administration. After the 2004 Afghan presidential election, he became the President of Afghanistan.

                                               

Presidency of Evo Morales

The Presidency of Evo Morales began on January 22, 2006 when Evo Morales was inaugurated as the 80th President of Bolivia, following his victory in the 2005 general election, where he won 53.7% of the vote, defeating Jorge Quiroga, Samuel Doria Medina, and several other candidates. Morales increased taxation on the hydrocarbon industry to bolster social spending, emphasising projects to combat illiteracy, poverty, racism, and sexism. Vocally criticizing neoliberalism and reducing Bolivias dependence on the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, his administration oversaw strong economic growth while following a policy termed "Evonomics" which sought to move from a liberal economic approach to a mixed economy. Scaling back U.S. influence in the country, he built relationships with leftist governments in the Latin American pink tide and signed Bolivia into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. Attempting to moderate the left-indigenous activist community, his administration also opposed the right-wing autonomist demands of Bolivias eastern provinces. Winning a recall referendum in 2008, he instituted a new constitution that established Bolivia as a plurinational state and was re-elected in 2009. His second term witnessed the continuation of leftist policies and Bolivias joining of the Bank of the South and Community of Latin American and Caribbean States; he was again reelected in the 2014 general election. Following the disputed 2019 general election and the ensuing unrest, Morales resigned and flew to Mexico where he had been granted political asylum.

                                               

Presidency of Shimon Peres

The Presidency of Shimon Peres, the ninth President of Israel, began after the 2007 Israeli presidential election on 13 June 2007 in which Peres defeated Reuven Rivlin and Colette Avital. Peres was sworn in as President on 15 July 2007. At the age of 90, Peres was the worlds oldest head of state.