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ⓘ Encyclopedia | Changes in political power - Wiki ..




                                               

Coup d'etat

A coup detat is the forcible removal of an existing government from power through violent means. Whereas a coup does not specify the means taken by the revolting party to overthrow the state, a coup detat is a revolt performed through violence. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a political faction, the military, or a dictator. A coup detat is considered successful when the usurpers seize and hold power for at least seven days.

                                               

List of deposed politicians

Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch. It may be done by coup, impeachment, invasion, or forced abdication. The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a bishop, from ecclesiastical office.

                                               

List of heads of state and government deposed by foreign power in the 20th and 21st century

                                               

Power vacuum

In political science and political history, the term power vacuum, also known as a power void, is an analogy between a physical vacuum, to the political condition "when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them." The situation can occur when a government has no identifiable central power or authority. The physical analogy suggests that in a power vacuum, other forces will tend to "rush in" to fill the vacuum as soon as it is created, perhaps in the form of an armed militia or insurgents, military coup, warlord or dictator. The term is also often used in organized crime when a crime family becomes vulnerable to competition. Hereditary or statutory order of succession or effective succession planning are orderly ways to resolve questions of succession to positions of power. When such methods are unavailable, such as in failed dictatorships or civil wars, a power vacuum arises, which prompts a power struggle entailing political competition, violence, or usually both. A power vacuum can also occur after a constitutional crisis in which large portions of the government resign or are removed, creating unclear succession.

                                               

Regime change

Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another. Use of the term dates to at least 1925. Regime change may replace all or part of the states most critical leadership system, administrative apparatus, or bureaucracy. It can be the deliberate product of outside force, as in warfare. Rollback is the military strategy to impose a regime change by defeating an enemy and removing its regime by force. Regime change can occur through inside change caused by revolution, coup detat or reconstruction following the failure of a state.

                                               

Russia involvement in regime change

Russia involvement in regime change has entailed both overt and covert actions aimed at altering, replacing, or preserving foreign governments. During World War II, the Soviet Union helped overthrow many Nazi Germany or imperial Japanese puppet regimes, including Manchukuo, Korea, and much of Europe. Soviet forces were also instrumental in ending the rule of Adolf Hitler over Germany. In the aftermath of World War II, the Soviet government struggled with the United States for global leadership and influence within the context of the Cold War. It expanded the geographic scope of its actions beyond its traditional area of operations. In addition, the Soviet Union and Russia have interfered in the national elections of many countries. One study indicated that the Soviet Union and Russia engaged in 36 interventions in foreign elections from 1946 to 2000. The Soviet Union ratified the UN Charter in 1945, the pre-eminent international law document, which legally bound the Soviet government to the Charters provisions, including Article 24, which prohibits the threat or use of force in international relations, except in very limited circumstances. Therefore, any legal claim advanced to justify regime change by a foreign power carries a particularly heavy burden. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia has led or supported operations to determine the governance of a number of countries, including the South Ossetia war in 2008 and the annexation of Crimea in 2014.

                                               

Secession

Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Some of the most famous and significant secessions have been: the former Soviet republics leaving the Russian Federation, and Algeria leaving France. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals. It is, therefore, a process, which commences once a group proclaims the act of secession. A secession attempt might be violent or peaceful, but the goal is the creation of a new state or entity independent from the group or territory it seceded from.

                                               

United States involvement in regime change

United States involvement in regime change has entailed both overt and covert actions aimed at altering, replacing, or preserving foreign governments. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. government initiated actions for regime change mainly in Latin America and the southwest Pacific, including the Spanish–American and Philippine–American wars. At the onset of the 20th century the United States shaped or installed friendly governments in many countries around the world, including neighbors Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. During the Second world war, the US helped to overthrow many Nazi Germany or Imperial puppet regimes. Examples include the regimes in the Philippines, Korea, Eastern China and most of Europe. USA. forces also played an important role in ending the reign of Adolf Hitler in Germany and Mussolini in Italy. After the Second world war, the United States in 1945 ratified the UN Charter, an eminent international legal instrument that legally binds the U.S. government in the statutes provisions, including article 24, which prohibits the threat or use of force in international relations, except in very rare circumstances. Therefore, any legal claim advanced to justify regime change by foreign powers carries a particularly heavy burden. After the Second world war, the US government fought the Soviet Union for world leadership, influence and security in the context of the Cold war. The government of the United States of America under the Eisenhower administration fears that national security would be threatened by governments supported by the Soviet Union of involvement in regime change and put forward the Domino theory, with subsequent presidents Eisenhowers precedent. Subsequently, the United States has expanded the geography of their actions beyond the traditional areas of Central America and the Caribbean. Significant operations in the United States and the United Kingdom-organized 1953 Iranian coup detat, 1961 the Bay of Pigs invasion against Cuba and support for the overthrow of Sukarno by General Suharto in Indonesia. In addition, the United States intervened in national elections of countries, including in Japan in the 1950-ies and 1960-ies, in the Philippines in 1953 and Lebanon in 1957 elections using secret cash infusions. According to one study, in the United States performed at least 81 known overt and covert activities in foreign elections in the period 1946-2000. Another study showed that the United States engaged in covert and 64, six clear of attempts of regime change in the Cold war period. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States has led or supported the war to determine leadership of a number of countries. The stated US goal in these conflicts fought in the war on terror, as in the ongoing Afghan war, or the elimination of dictatorships and hostile regimes in the Iraq war and military intervention in Libya in 2011.