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Continuity of government

Continuity of government is the principle of establishing defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of a catastrophic event such as nuclear war. COG was developed by the British government before and during World War II to counter threats, such as that of the Luftwaffe bombing during the Battle of Britain. The need for continuity of government plans gained new urgency with nuclear proliferation. During and after the Cold War countries developed such plans to avoid or minimize confusion and disorder due to a power vacuum in the aftermath of a nuclear attack. In the US at least, COG is no longer limited to nuclear emergencies; the Continuity of Operations Plan was activated following the September 11 attacks.

                                               

CFS Carp

Canadian Forces Station Carp is a former Canadian military facility located in the rural farming community of Carp in Ottawa, Ontario, approximately 30 km west of downtown Ottawa. CFS Carp was decommissioned in 1994, and in 1998 it was reopened as the Diefenbunker, Canadas Cold War Museum and designated a National Historic Site of Canada. It is open year-round for tours.

                                               

Central Government War Headquarters

The Central Government War Headquarters is a 35-acre complex built 120 feet underground as the United Kingdoms emergency government war headquarters – the hub of the countrys alternative seat of power outside London during a nuclear war or conflict with the Soviet Union. It is located in Corsham, Wiltshire, in a former Bath stone quarry known as Spring Quarry, under the present-day MoD Corsham. In 1940, during the second world war, the site was acquired by the Minister of Aircraft Production and used as an underground engine factory. The complex was known variously as "Stockwell", "Subterfuge", "Burlington", "Turnstile", "Chanticleer", "Peripheral", and "Site 3". It was also nicknamed "Hawthorn" by journalist Duncan Campbell, who first revealed its existence in his 1982 book War Plan UK. It was also mentioned by Peter Laurie in his 1979 revised edition of Beneath the City Streets. It was commissioned in 1955, after approval by prime minister Anthony Eden. However it became outdated shortly after it was built, due to intercontinental ballistic missiles being able to target it, and the formulation of other plans such as PYTHON. Nevertheless the complex continued to have a role in war plans and remained in operation for thirty years.

                                               

Coats Mission

The Coats Mission was a special British army unit established in 1940 for the purpose of evacuating King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and their immediate family in the event of a German invasion of Britain during the Second World War. It was led by Major James Coats, MC, Coldstream Guards, later Lieutenant-Colonel Sir James Coats, Bt. The force consisted of: Military police from the Provost Company of the 1st London Division for escort and traffic control, commanded by Captain Sir Malcolm Campbell, MBE. At Campbells suggestion they were equipped with fast Norton International Model 30 racing motorcycles rather than the standard military Norton WD16H of the era. A troop of the 12th Lancers based at Wellington Barracks commanded by Lieutenant W.A. Morris, known as the Morris Detachment. They were equipped with two Daimler Armoured Cars and four Guy Armoured Cars. Their role was to evacuate the King and Queen. In addition, the four Rolls-Royce Armoured Cars based at the Royal Mews would be attached to the troop in the event of an evacuation. A troop of the 2nd Northamptonshire Yeomanry based at Windsor Castle commanded by Lieutenant Michael Tomkin. They were equipped with four Guy Armoured Cars. Their role was to evacuate Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret. A Royal Army Service Corps section of 12 men with four Leyland Tiger buses based at Bushey Hall Golf Club. Their role was to transport the Coldstream Guards company. A special company of the Coldstream Guards. There were five officers and 124 Guardsmen based at Bushey Hall Golf Club. Every officer and Guardsman was personally interviewed by Major Coats before being assigned to the company. Initially, two of the Guy Armoured Cars in each troop had their guns removed and additional seats installed to carry members of the Royal Family. These were replaced by four specially built Daimler armoured limousines. Several country houses in remote locations, reportedly including Newby Hall, North Yorkshire, Pitchford Hall, Shropshire, Madresfield Court Earl Beauchamps home in Worcestershire, and a fourth unnamed house possibly Bevere Manor, Worcestershire, were designated as refuges. Madresfield Court reportedly replaced Croome Court, Worcester the home of the Earl of Coventry in 1940. It was also a safe house for King George III in the late eighteenth century, in the event of an invasion by Napoleon. Should invading German forces have reached the Midlands, the Royal Family would have been taken to Liverpool and evacuated by sea to Canada. Hatley Castle on Vancouver Island was purchased in 1940 as part of this contingency. If that last resort option had been required, the family were to travel to Holyhead for transport to Canada by the Royal Navy. The mission was disbanded in 1942 and the task of evacuating the Royal Family in an emergency was transferred to a detachment from the Household Cavalry Composite Regiment.

                                               

Decapitation strike

A decapitation strike is a military strategy aimed at removing the leadership or command and control of a hostile government or group. The strategy of shattering or defeating an enemy by eliminating its military and political leadership has long been utilized in warfare.

                                               

Emergency Government Headquarters

Emergency Government Headquarters is the name given for a system of nuclear fallout shelters built by the Government of Canada in the 1950s and 1960s as part of continuity of government planning at the height of the Cold War. Situated at strategic locations across the country, the largest of these shelters are popularly referred to as "Diefenbunkers", a nickname coined by federal opposition politicians during the early 1960s. The nickname was derived from the last name of the Prime Minister of the day, John Diefenbaker, who authorized their construction. Over fifty facilities were built along several designs for various classes of service. Most of these facilities were built, often in great secrecy, at rural locations outside major cities across Canada. The majority of the larger facilities were two-story underground bunkers while the largest at CFS Carp had four floors; these facilities were designed to withstand a near-miss from a nuclear explosion. Each underground facility had entrances through massive blast doors at the surface, as well as extensive air filters and positive air pressure to prevent radiation infiltration. Underground storage was built for food, fuel, fresh water, and other supplies for the facilities which were capable of supporting several dozen people for a period of several weeks. The facilities were operated by personnel from the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, renamed to Communications Command after the 1968 unification of the Canadian Armed Forces.