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ⓘ Encyclopedia | Regulation - Wiki ..


Regulatory science

Regulatory science is the scientific and technical foundations upon which regulations are based in various industries – particularly those involving health or safety. Regulatory bodies employing such principles in the US include for example the FDA for food and medical products, the EPA for the environment, and OSHA for work safety. "Regulatory science" is contrasted with regulatory affairs and regulatory law, which refer to the administrative or legal aspects of regulation, in that the former is focused on the regulations scientific underpinnings and concerns – rather than the regulations promulgation, implementation, compliance, or enforcement.


Regulation of acupuncture

In Japan, acupuncture practitioners are licensed by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare after passing an examination and graduating from a technical school or university.


Advanced electronic signature

An advanced electronic signature is an electronic signature that has met the requirements set forth under EU Regulation No 910/2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market.


Animal testing regulations

Animal testing regulations are laws or guidelines that permit and control the use of non-human animals for scientific experimentation. They vary greatly around the world, but most governments aim to control the number of times individual animals may be used; the overall numbers used; and the degree of pain that may be inflicted without anesthetic.


Associated Signature Containers

Associated Signature Containers specifies the use of container structures to bind together one or more signed objects with either advanced electronic signatures or timestamp tokens into one single digital container.


Bootleggers and Baptists

Bootleggers and Baptists is a concept put forth by regulatory economist Bruce Yandle, derived from the observation that regulations are supported both by groups that want the ostensible purpose of the regulation, and by groups that profit from undermining that purpose. For much of the 20th century, Baptists and other evangelical Christians were prominent in political activism for Sunday closing laws restricting the sale of alcohol. Bootleggers sold alcohol illegally, and got more business if legal sales were restricted. Yandle wrote that "Such a coalition makes it easier for politicians to favor both groups. the Baptists lower the costs of favor-seeking for the bootleggers, because politicians can pose as being motivated purely by the public interest even while they promote the interests of well-funded businesses. take the moral high ground, while the bootleggers persuade the politicians quietly, behind closed doors."