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Regent

A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent, or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. Regent is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor his mother, she is often referred to as queen regent. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out. This was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1795, kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic primate the archbishop of Gniezno who served as the regent, termed the interrex Latin: ruler between kings as in ancient Rome. In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually they serve a six-month term as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent, later George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era and Regency architecture. Strictly this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, though when used as a period label it generally covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orleans was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV in 1715 until Louis XV came of age in 1723; this is also used as a period label for many aspects of French history, as Regence in French, again tending to cover a rather wider period than the actual regency. The equivalent Greek term is epitropos επίτροπος, meaning overseer. As of 2019, Liechtenstein under Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency.

                                               

Regency Acts

The Regency Acts are Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed at various times, to provide a regent in the event of the reigning monarch being incapacitated or a minor. Prior to 1937, Regency Acts were passed only when necessary to deal with a specific situation. In 1937, the Regency Act 1937 made general provision for a regent, and established the office of Counsellor of State, several of whom would act on the monarchs behalf when the monarch was temporarily absent from the realm. This Act forms the main law relating to regency in the United Kingdom today. An example of a pre-1937 Regency Act was the Act of 1811 which allowed George, Prince of Wales to act as regent while his father, King George III, was incapacitated. George ruled as the Prince Regent until his fathers death, when he ascended the throne as King George IV.

                                               

Gonghe Regency

The Gonghe Regency was an interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BC, after King Li of Zhou was exiled by his nobles during the Compatriots Rebellion, when the Chinese people rioted against their old corrupt king. Until the ascension of his son, King Xuan of Zhou.

                                               

Regence

The Regence was the period in French history between 1715 and 1723, when King Louis XV was a minor and the land was governed by Philippe dOrleans, a nephew of Louis XIV of France, as prince regent. Philippe was able to take power away from the Duke of Maine illegitimate son of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan who had been the favourite son of the late king and possessed much influence. From 1715 to 1718 the Polysynody changed the system of government in France, in which each minister secretary of state was replaced by a council. The systeme de Law was also introduced, which transformed the finances of the bankrupted kingdom and its aristocracy. Both Cardinal Dubois and Cardinal Fleury were highly influential during this time. Contemporary European rulers included Philip V of Spain, John V of Portugal, George I of Great Britain, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, and Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, the maternal grandfather of Louis XV.

                                               

Regency Act 1705

The Regency Act 1705 was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of England. The Act was passed at a time when Parliament was anxious to ensure that a Protestant succeeded to the throne on the death of Queen Anne. The Act was conceived by the Whig Junto, mainly by John Somers, and seen through the House of Lords by Lord Wharton. Lord Cowper later claimed the Act was designed "to put it in such a method was not to be resisted but by open force of arms and a public declaration for the Pretender". The Act required privy counsellors and other officers, in the event of Annes death, to proclaim as her successor the next Protestant in the line of succession to the throne, and made it high treason to fail to do so. If the next Protestant successor was abroad at the death of Anne, seven great Officers of State named in the Act and others whom the heir-apparent thought fit to appoint, called "Lords Justices," would form a regency. The heir-apparent would name these others through a secret instrument which would be sent to England in three copies and delivered to the Hanoverian Resident, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Chancellor. The Lords Justices were to have the power to give royal assent to bills, except that they would be guilty of treason if they amended the Act of Uniformity 1662. The Act also made it treason to say in writing than Anne was not the lawful queen, or that James the Pretender had any right to inherit the Crown. It was praemunire to say so in speech. The Act also confirmed the clauses in the Parliament Act 1695 which stipulated that Parliament would continue to sit should the Sovereign die "for and during the term of six months and no longer, unless the same be sooner prorogued or dissolved by such person to whom the Crown of this realm of Great Britain shall come". The Act received Royal Assent in March 1706, but came into force retrospectively from the beginning of that session of Parliament hence it is dated 1705. Lord Halifax at the end of the session of Parliament was sent to Hanover to present a copy of the Act to the heir apparent, Sophia, Electress of Hanover. The Act was replaced only two years later by the Succession to the Crown Act 1707.

                                               

Regency Act 1830

The Regency Act 1830 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed to cater for the event that King William IV died while the next person in line to the throne was not yet aged 18. It provided for a regency until the new monarch reached the age of 18, and also would have enabled a posthumous child of King William IV to replace Queen Victoria on the throne. However, the Act never came into force, because William was not survived by a legitimate child and Victoria became queen at the age of 18 in 1837.

                                               

Regency era

The Regency in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period at the end of the Georgian era, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness, and his son ruled as his proxy, as prince regent. Upon George IIIs death in 1820, the prince regent became King George IV. The term Regency can refer to various stretches of time; some are longer than the decade of the formal Regency which lasted from 1811 to 1820. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of George IIIs reign and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, literature, fashions, politics, and culture.

                                               

Regency government, 1422–1437

The regency government of the Kingdom of England of 1422 to 1437 ruled while Henry VI was a minor. Decisions were made in the kings name by the Regency Council, which was made up of the most important and influential people in the government of England, and dominated by the kings uncle Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Bishop Henry Beaufort. The individuals who constituted the Regency Council as at 9 December 1422 were Griffiths 1981, p. 23: Although the nominal leadership of the regency lay with John, Duke of Bedford Gloucesters older brother, he spent most of his time ruling the English territories in France. Gloucester thus took the post of Lord Protector of the Realm in order to rule England while Bedford was absent. In practice, however, he was forced to share power with Cardinal Henry Beaufort, who held the position of Lord Chancellor and led a regency council composed of Englands prominent magnates. Much of the period was marked by quarrels and disputes between Gloucester and the cardinal. Tensions between both parties could be seen in events such as the Parliament of Bats. The Council soon split along lines of opposition and support to the continuation of the war in France. Gloucester had always been fervently in favour of finishing the war his brother had started in France and seeing it through to victory at any price. However, in the face of a resurgent French army led by Joan of Arc and the crowning of the Dauphin as Charles VII in 1429, it became clear that the French were gaining the upper hand and slowly expelling the English from their country. A peace party emerged led by Cardinal Beaufort, who saw the war as a drain on resources and unwinnable. However, for most of the period the regency council was able to govern effectively and fairly. The splits became most evident towards the end. In 1432, Anne of Burgundy died; she was the younger sister of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Anne had been the wife of John, Duke of Bedford, and their marriage was instrumental in maintaining the alliance between England and Burgundy against France. However, following her death, Bedford married Jacquetta of Luxembourg, which the Duke of Burgundy disapproved of and Burgundy made peace with France. With the loss of the alliance with Burgundy, Bedford became convinced that peace was the only solution, but at a conference arranged in Arras in 1435, the English delegation refused to give up their claim to the French throne. Bedford died just after the conference and was replaced with Richard, Duke of York who did not favour the peace policy. When Henry finally came of age in 1437, he took over at just about the worst time possible, when splits about the war and rivalries between the various nobles were at their deepest. The Crown had suffered huge war debts, and there was general lack of leadership in the French territories which seemed to be slipping slowly but surely out of English hands.

                                               

Yugoslav regency

The Yugoslav regency was a three-member governorship headed by Prince Regent Paul of Yugoslavia in place of Peter II until coming of age. It was in effect between November 1934 and 27 March 1941.