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ⓘ Encyclopedia | Government institutions - Wiki ..


Administration (government)

In American usage, the term generally refers to the executive branch under a specific president ; or the term of a particular executive; for example: "President Ys administration" or "Secretary of Defense X during President Ys administration." It can also mean an executive branch agency headed by an administrator, as the Small Business Administration or the National Archives and Records Administration. The term "administration" has been used to denote the executive branch in presidential systems of government.


Board of estimate

A Board of Estimate is a governing body in many counties and municipalities, particularly in the United States. Typically, the boards membership will consist of a combination of elected officials from the executive branch e.g., the mayor or county executive and the legislative branch, and its powers are usually concentrated in such areas as taxation land use especially zoning laws.


Cabinet (government)

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries, particularly those that use a parliamentary system e.g., the UK, the Cabinet collectively decides the governments direction, especially in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence; rather, their primary role is as an official advisory council to the head of government. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions. Legally, under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will almost always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president who is also head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinets advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, and in three countries that do, very often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is usually the head of government usually called Prime Minister who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports. The second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are also important originators for legislation. Cabinets and ministers are usually in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus, often the majority of new legislation actually originates from the cabinet and its ministries.


Cabinet rank

A person who is of Cabinet rank holds a ministerial position in a government. They sit in Cabinet and form the highest body of leadership in a government.


Center for Quantum Nanoscience

The Center for Quantum Nanoscience was founded in 2017 as part of efforts for South Korea to expand basic science research. Classified as an Extramural Center of the Institute for Basic Science, it is hosted by Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea. Their research focuses on exploring quantum properties of atoms and molecules on surfaces and interfaces and long-term goals of quantum sensing and quantum computation in those areas. Their dedicated building started construction in 2018 and officially opened in 2019 during the IBS Conference on Quantum Nanoscience.


Control commission

A control commission is an independent regulatory body. Control commissions are most often found in regulated industries and political organisations. They typically have full authority to operate within the regulations that establish them. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the defeated Axis countries were administered by Allied Control Commissions consisting of representatives of the major Allied Powers. Compare also the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control established after World War I. In regulated industries, including gaming, alcohol and monopolies, control commissions may define and implement regulations set by legislatures. They can be involved in the allocation of licenses and the defining of operating requirements for market participants. In political organisations, control commissions may be committees that are independent of the leadership of the organisation who ensure the correct functioning of the organisation. Membership of commissions typically excludes members of the presiding body and their staff, or includes one member of the presiding body. Commission duties might include the oversight of disciplinary proceedings, the investigation of alleged irregularities, the oversight of financial management and the interpretation of rules and statutes.