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Adverse possession

Adverse possession, sometimes colloquially described as squatters rights ", is a legal principle under which a person who does not have legal title to a piece of property - usually land - acquires legal ownership based on continuous possession or occupation of the land without the permission of its legal owner. In general, a property owner has the right to recover possession of their property from unauthorised possessors through legal action such as ejectment. However, in the English common law tradition, courts have long ruled that when someone occupies a piece of property without permission and the propertys owner does not exercise their right to recover their property for a significant period of time, not only is the original owner prevented from exercising their right to exclude, but an entirely new title to the property "springs up" in the adverse possessor. In effect, the adverse possessor becomes the propertys new owner. Over time, legislatures have created statutes of limitations that specify the length of time that owners have to recover possession of their property from adverse possessors. In the United States, for example, these time limits vary widely between individual states, ranging from as low as three years to as many as 40 years. Although the elements of an adverse possession action are different in every jurisdiction, a person claiming adverse possession is usually required to prove non-permissive use of the property that is actual, open and notorious, exclusive, adverse and continuous for the statutory period. Personal property, traditionally known as chattel, may also be adversely possessed, but owing to the differences in the nature of real and chattel property, the rules governing such claims are rather more stringent, and favour the legal owner rather than the adverse possessor. Claims for adverse possession of chattel often involve works of art.


Civic holiday


Computation of time

For the treatise on time written by Bede the Venerable, see The Reckoning of Time. In the canon law of the Catholic Church, the computation of time, also translated as the reckoning of time Latin: supputatio temporis, is the manner by which legally-specified periods of time are calculated according to the norm of the canons on the computation of time. The application of laws frequently involves a question of time: generally three months must elapse after their promulgation before they go into effect; some obligations have to be fulfilled within a certain number of days, or weeks, or months. Hence the need of the rules for the computation of time. With the Code of 1917 and the reformed Code of 1983, the legislator has formulated these rules with a clearness and precision that they never had before.


Contractual term

A contractual term is "any provision forming part of a contract". Each term gives rise to a contractual obligation, breach of which can give rise to litigation. Not all terms are stated expressly and some terms carry less legal gravity as they are peripheral to the objectives of the contract.



Escheat is a common law doctrine that transfers the real property of a person who has died without heirs to the Crown or state. It serves to ensure that property is not left in "limbo" without recognized ownership. It originally applied to a number of situations where a legal interest in land was destroyed by operation of law, so that the ownership of the land reverted to the immediately superior feudal lord.


Minority reign

The term minority reign or royal minority refers to the period of a sovereigns rule when he or she is legally a minor. Minority reigns are of their nature times when politicians and advisors can be especially competitive. Some scholars claim that, in Britain, primogeniture, the growth of conciliar government, and the emergence of the Parliament as a representative and administrative force all occurred within the context of the minority reigns. Minority reigns also characterized a period in the Roman empire 367-455, notably the years that preceded the reign of Valentinian III, who also became emperor when he was six years old. The succession of child-turned-adult emperors led to the so-called infantilization of the imperial office, which had taken hold during the long reign of Honorius, Valentinians predecessor. Here, the imperial office operated within a severely curtailed system compared to its authority a century prior.