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Frans Andriessen

Franciscus Henricus Johannes Joseph "Frans" Andriessen was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic Peoples Party and later the Christian Democratic Appeal party and businessman. Andriessen applied at the Utrecht University in June 1947 majoring in Law and obtaining an Bachelor of Laws degree in June 1949 and graduating with an Master of Laws degree in July 1953. Andriessen worked for a construction institute in Utrecht from October 1953 until February 1967 as a researcher from October 1953 until July 1961 and as Chief executive officer CEO from July 1961 until February 1967. Andriessen was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1967, taking office on 23 February 1967 serving as a frontbencher chairing the special parliamentary committee for Public Housing costs and spokesperson for Housing and Spatial Planning and deputy spokesperson for Local Government Affairs. On 16 August 1971 the Leader of the Catholic Peoples Party and Parliamentary leader of the Catholic Peoples Party in the House of Representatives Gerard Veringa took a leave of absence for health reasons the Catholic Peoples Party leadership approached Andriessen as interim Parliamentary leader, taking office on 16 August 1971. On 28 September 1971 Veringa unexpectedly announced that he was stepping down as Leader permanently and the Catholic Peoples Party leadership approached Andriessen as his successor, Andriessen accepted and became the Leader of the Catholic Peoples Party, taking office on 1 October 1971. For the election of 1972 Andriessen served as Lijsttrekker top candidate. The Catholic Peoples Party suffered a loss, losing 8 seats but retained its place as the second largest party and now had 27 seats in the House of Representatives. The following second cabinet formation of 1972 resulted in a coalition agreement between the Catholic Peoples Party, the Labour Party PvdA, the Anti-Revolutionary Party ARP, the Political Party of Radicals PPR and the Democrats D66 which formed the Cabinet Den Uyl with Andriessen opting to remain in the House of Representatives instead of accepting a cabinet post in the new cabinet and he continued to serve in the House of Representatives as Parliamentary leader. On 10 December 1976 the Catholic Peoples Party, the Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union CHU choose to merge in a political alliance to form the Christian Democratic Appeal CDA. Incumbent Deputy Prime Minister Dries van Agt of the Catholic Peoples Party was choose as the first Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and became the Lijsttrekker for the election of 1977. The following cabinet formation of 1977 resulted in a coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal and the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy VVD which formed the Cabinet Van Agt-Wiegel with Andriessen appointed as Minister of Finance, taking office on 19 December 1977. On 22 February 1980 Andriessen and State Secretary for Finance Ad Nooteboom resigned after he disagreed with the cabinets decision to not implement a stronger austerity policy to revitalize the Economy following the recession in the 1980s. Andriessen remained in active in national politics, he was elected as a Member of the Senate after the Senate election of 1980, taking office on 16 September 1980 serving as a frontbencher and spokesperson for Finances. In November 1980 Andriessen was nominated as the next European Commissioner from the Netherlands. Andriessen was giving the heavy portfolios of Competition and Parliamentary Relations in the Thorn Commission, he resigned as a Member of the Senate the same day he was installed as European Commissioner, taking office on 6 January 1981. In December 1984 Andriessen was re-nominated as European Commissioner. He was given the portfolios of Agriculture and Fisheries and was also appointed as the First Vice-President of the European Commission in the First Delors Commission, taking office on 6 January 1985. In November 1988 Andriessen was again re-nominated as European Commissioner. He was given the heavy portfolios of External Relations and Trade and was also re-appointed as the First Vice-President of the European Commission in the Second Delors Commission, serving from 6 January 1989 until 6 January 1993. Andriessen retired after spending 25 years in national politics and became active in the private sector and public sector and became active in the private sector and public sector and occupied numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards and as an advocate and lobbyist for Human rights, Humanitarianism, Democracy and for European integration. Andriessen also served as a distinguished professor of European integration at the Utrecht University from 1 March 1990 until 1 September 2009. Andriessen was known for his abilities as a consensus builder and negotiator. Andriessen continued to comment on political affairs as an statesman until his is death at the age of 89 and holds the distinction as the second longest-serving European Commissioner from the Netherlands with 12 years, 0 days.

                                               

Jan Peter Balkenende

Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. ; born 7 May 1956) is a Dutch jurist and retired politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 to 14 October 2010. He is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal. Balkenende started his career as a legal counsel at the Academic Council of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam from 1982 until 1984, and as a researcher at the Christian Democratic Appeal think tank from 1984 until 1998. He worked as a professor of Christian theology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam from 1993 until 2002. Balkenende was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1998, and served in the House of Representatives from 19 May 1998 until 22 July 2002. After the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives Jaap de Hoop Scheffer stepped down following an internal power struggle between him and Chairman of the Christian Democratic Appeal Marnix van Rij for the leadership, De Hoop Scheffer endorsed Balkenende as his successor. After De Hoop Scheffer stood down on 1 October 2001, Balkenende was chosen to succeed him and became the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives and the lijsttrekker top candidate of the party for the election of 2002. The Christian Democratic Appeal became the surprising winner of the election, gaining 14 seats and becoming the largest party, now having 43 seats in House of Representatives. This success was in part owed to Balkenendes neutral attitude in the debates with Pim Fortuyn, the eponymous leader of the Pim Fortuyn List party who was assassinated days before the election on 6 May 2002. The following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal, the Pim Fortuyn List LPF and the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy VVD, which formed the first Balkenende cabinet with Balkenende becoming Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs on 22 July 2002. However, the first Balkenende cabinet fell after only 87 days in office on 16 October 2002 following internal conflicts within the Pim Fortuyn List leadership that destabilised the coalition agreement on 16 October 2002. For the election of 2003, Balkenende served again as lijsttrekker. The Christian Democratic Appeal remained the largest party, gaining one seat and now totalling 44 seats in the House of Representatives. The following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal, the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Democrats 66 D66, which formed the second Balkenende cabinet, with Balkenende continuing as Prime Minister and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 27 May 2003. This second cabinet fell on 30 June 2006 after the Democrats 66 retracted their support following there dissatisfaction with the way Minister for Integration and Asylum Affairs Rita Verdonk had handled the crisis around the naturalisation of Member of the House of Representatives Ayaan Hirsi Ali, the Democrats 66 cabinet members resigned on 3 July 2006. A caretaker government was made by the Christian Democratic Appeal and the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy that formed the third Balkenende cabinet on 7 July 2006. For the election of 2006 Balkenende served again as lijsttrekker. The election resulted in a small loss of three seats for the Christian Democratic Appeal, but it remained the largest party and now had 41 seats in the House of Representatives. The following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal, the Labour Party PvdA and the Christian Union CU, which formed the centre-left fourth Balkenende cabinet, with Balkenende continuing as Prime Minister and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 22 February 2007. The fourth Balkenende cabinet fell on 20 February 2010 after the Labour Party retracted their support following a disagreement over the extension of the ISAF mission in Afghanistan, the Labour Party cabinet members resigned on 23 February 2010. The cabinet remained in office in a demissionary capacity. For the election of 2010 Balkenende served as lijsttrekker for a fourth and final time. The Christian Democratic Appeal suffered a large defeat in the election, losing 20 seats and falling back as the fourth party, now having 21 seats in the House of Representatives. Balkenende accepted responsibility for the defeat and sequentially announced his resignation as party leader and his retirement from national politics. He was succeeded as Leader by his long serving Deputy Maxime Verhagen that same day on 9 June 2010. He remained Prime Minister until the first Rutte cabinet was installed on 14 October 2010. After his premiership, Balkenende retired from active politics and became a professor of Governance, Institutions and Internationalization at the Erasmus University Rotterdam on 1 December 2010, and worked as a Partner of Corporate Responsibility at Ernst & Young from 1 April 2011 until 1 July 2017. Following his retirement Balkenende occupies numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director for supervisory boards in the business and industry world and several international non-governmental organisations ING Group, Goldschmeding Foundation and the Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition.

                                               

Laurens Jan Brinkhorst

Laurens Jan Brinkhorst is a retired Dutch politician and diplomat of the Democrats 66 party and jurist. Brinkhorst is known for his abilities as a debater and negotiator. Brinkhorst continues to comment on political affairs. His youngest daughter Princess Laurentien is married to Prince Constantijn, the youngest brother of King Willem-Alexander and son of former Queen Beatrix.

                                               

Job Cohen

Marius Job Cohen is a retired Dutch politician of the Labour Party and jurist. Cohen worked as researcher at the Leiden University from September 1971 until September 1981 and at the State University of Limburg from September 1981 until September 1983. Cohen worked as a professor of Jurisprudence at the State University of Limburg from September 1983 until June 1993. He also served as Rector Magnificus of the State University of Limburg from January 1991 until June 1993. Cohen was appointed as State Secretary for Education and Sciences in the Cabinet Lubbers III following the resignation of Roel in t Veld, taking office on 9 June 1993. In February 1994 Cohen announced that she would not stand for the election of 1994. Following the cabinet formation of 1994 Cohen per his own request asked not to be considered for a cabinet post in the new cabinet as his wife was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The Cabinet Lubbers III was replaced by the Cabinet Kok I on 22 August 1994. Cohen returned to the public sector and served as a professor of Jurisprudence at the State University of Limburg and as the Rector Magnificus of the State University of Limburg from January 1995 until August 1998. Cohen was elected as a Member of the Senate after the Senate election of 1995, taking office on 13 June 1995. Cohen was selected as Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the Senate following the resignation of Joop van den Berg, taking office on 1 August 1996. After the election of 1998 Cohen was appointed as State Secretary for Justice in the Cabinet Kok II, taking office on 3 August 1998. In December 2000 Cohen was nominated as Mayor of Amsterdam, he resigned as State Secretary on 1 January 2001 and was installed as Mayor, taking office on 15 January 2001. In March 2010 the Leader of the Labour Party Wouter Bos unexpectedly announced his retirement from national politics and approached Cohen to seek the leadership for the election of 2010. Cohen accepted and resigned as Mayor of Amsterdam on 12 March 2010 and was unopposed in his candidacy and was elected as Leader and became the Lijsttrekker top candidate of the Labour Party for the election on 25 April 2010. Following the election the Labour Party suffered a small loss, losing 3 seats and now had 30 seats in the House of Representatives but retained its place as the second largest party. Cohen was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives and became the Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives, taking office on 17 June 2010. In February 2012 following increasing criticism on his performance as Opposition leader Cohen announced his retirement from national politics and that he was stepping down Leader and Parliamentary leader. Cohen stepped down on 12 February 2012 but retained his seat in the House of Representatives and continued to serve as a backbencher until his resignation on 29 February 2012. Cohen retired from active politics and returned to the public sector and occupies numerous seats as a nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards and as an trade association executive for the Social Welfare and Unemployment providers association Cedris and the Copyright and Patent association VOICE and serves on several state commissions and councils on behalf of the government Project X Haren Commission, Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP and the World War II reparations Commission and as an advocate and lobbyist for social integration, social security and voluntary euthanasia. Cohen also served as a distinguished professor of Constitutional law and Governmental studies at the Leiden University holding the Thorbecke Chair from 1 April 2014 until 1 January 2019. Cohen is known for his abilities as a consensus builder and mediator and continues to comment on political affairs.

                                               

Geoffrey Dabelko

Geoffrey D. Dabelko is Professor and Associate Dean at the George V. Voinovich School of Leadership and Public Affairs at Ohio University in Athens, OH. He teaches and conducts applied research in the Schools Environmental Studies Program. His recent research focuses on the conflict and cooperation potential of responses to climate change and environmental peacebuilding. From 1997-2012, he served as director of the Environmental Change and Security Program ECSP, a nonpartisan policy forum on environment, population, and security issues at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. He continues to work as a senior advisor to the Wilson Center and ECSP where he helps facilitate dialogue among policymakers, practitioners, and scholars grappling with the complex connections that link environment, health, population, conflict, and security. Dabelko was the principal investigator for ECSPs "Navigating Peace: Forging New Water Partnerships" Initiative and is currently the PI for the National Science Foundation-funded Environment and Security and the U.S. National Security Committee grant. He worked previously at Foreign Policy and the Council on Foreign Relations. He taught environmental peacebuilding as an adjunct professor at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and taught global environmental politics at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. Dabelko is co-editor, with Ken Conca of American University, of Green Planet Blues: Critical Perspectives on Global Environmental Politics 6th ed., 2019 and Environmental Peacemaking 2002. Dabelko and Conca were the co-recipients of the Fifth Al-Moumin Award and Distinguished Lecture on Environmental Peacebuilding in 2018. Dabelko is a member of the United Nations Environment Programme’s Expert Advisory Group on Environment, Conflict, and Peacebuilding and an advisory board member of Screenscopes "Journey to Planet Earth" PBS documentary initiative. He is a board member at Population Reference Bureau and the Environmental Peacebuilding Association. He is an editorial board member of Case Studies in Environment and a contributing editor to Environment. He was a former Term Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Washington Term Member Advisory Council. He was a lead author for the 5th assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC Working Group II Chapter 12 on Human Security. Dabelko has a Ph.D. in government and politics from the University of Maryland and an AB in political science from Duke University. He lives in Athens, OH with his wife and three children.

                                               

Isaac Arend Diepenhorst

Isaac Arend "Iek" Diepenhorst was a Dutch politician of the defunct Anti-Revolutionary Party and later the Christian Democratic Appeal party and jurist. Diepenhorst applied at the Free University Amsterdam in June 1934 majoring in Law and Theology and obtaining Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Theology degrees in July 1936 and worked as a student researcher before graduating with an Master of Laws degree in September 1937 and an Master of Theology degree in March 1940 and later got a doctorate as an Doctor of Law on 10 June 1943. Diepenhorst worked as a professor of Criminal law and Criminal procedure at the Free University Amsterdam serving from October 1945 until April 1965. Diepenhorst also worked as a radio presenter and political pundit for the Dutch Christian Radio Association NCRV from April 1951 until September 1963. Diepenhorst was elected as a Member of the Senate after the Senate election of 1952, taking office on 15 July 1952. He also served as Rector Magnificus of the Free University Amsterdam from 1 January 1960 until 1 January 1961. On 27 February 1965 the Cabinet Marijnen fell and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until the cabinet formation of 1965 when it was replaced by Cabinet Cals with Diepenhorst appointed as Minister of Education and Sciences, taking office on 14 April 1965. The Cabinet Cals fell just one year later on 14 October 1966 and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until it was replaced by the caretaker Cabinet Zijlstra with Diepenhorst continuing as Minister of Education and Sciences, taking office on 22 November 1966. Diepenhorst was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1967, taking office on 23 February 1967. After the cabinet formation of 1967 Diepenhorst was not giving a cabinet post in the new cabinet, the Cabinet Zijlstra was replaced by the Cabinet De Jong on 5 April 1967 and he continued to serve in the House of Representatives as a frontbencher. Diepenhorst returned as a distinguished professor of Constitutional law, Administrative law and Governmental studies at the Free University Amsterdam serving from 23 February 1967 until 28 September 1984 and also as a distinguished professor of Parliamentary History from 1 September 1976 until 28 September 1984. He also served again as Rector Magnificus of the Free University Amsterdam from 1 September 1972 until 1 September 1976. In January 1971 Diepenhorst announced that he wouldnt stand for the election of 1971 but wanted tot return to the Senate. After the Senate election of 1971 Diepenhorst returned to the Senate, he resigned as a Member of the House of Representatives the day he was installed as a Member of the Senate, serving from 11 May 1971 until 17 September 1974 and again from 29 October 1974 until 10 June 1981 serving as a frontbencher chairing several parliamentary committees. Diepenhorst also became active in the public sector occupying numerous seats as a nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards and served on several state commissions and councils on behalf of the government Education Council, Probation Agency and the Council for Culture.