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Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance. The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common names for local government entities include state, province, region, department, county, prefecture, district, city, township, town, borough, parish, municipality, shire, village, and local service district.

                                               

Boma (enclosure)

A boma is a livestock enclosure, community enclosure, stockade, corral, small fort or a district government office and community used in many parts of the African Great Lakes region, as well as Central and Southern Africa. It is particularly associated with community decision making. It is incorporated into many African languages, as well as colonial varieties of English, French and German. As a livestock enclosure, a boma is the equivalent of kraal. The former term is used in areas influenced by the Swahili language, and the latter is employed in areas influenced by Afrikaans. In the form of fortified villages or camps, bomas were commonplace in Central Africa in the 18th and 19th century. They were commonplace throughout Africa, including in areas affected by the slave trade, tribal wars and colonial conquest, and were built and used by both sides. Apart from the neatly built stockades shown in illustrations of bomas, the term, in practice, more often resembled the structure shown in the illustration accompanying this article. In that form, they often were referred to by the likes of J. A. Hunter and Henry Morton Stanley.

                                               

Business improvement district

A business improvement district is a defined area within which businesses are required to pay an additional tax in order to fund projects within the districts boundaries. The BID is often funded primarily through the levy but can also draw on other public and private funding streams. BIDs may go by other names, such as business improvement area, business revitalization zone, community improvement district, special services area, or special improvement district. These districts typically fund services which are perceived by some businesses as being inadequately performed by government with its existing tax revenues, such as cleaning streets, providing security, making capital improvements, construction of pedestrian and streetscape enhancements, and marketing the area. The services provided by BIDs are supplemental to those already provided by the municipality. The revenue derives from a tax assessment on commercial property owners, and in some cases, residential property owners.

                                               

City development index

The City Development Index was developed for the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements in 1996 and measures the level of development in cities. The Urban Indicators Programme of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme developed the indicator so that they could rank cities of the world according to their level of development and as a display of indicators depicting development. The CDI cuts across the different clusters identified in the Urban Indicator Framework as it is based on five sub indices namely, infrastructure, waste, health, education and city product. It is useful as it provides a snap-shot view of how cities are doing with respect to the different indices. It was invented by Dr Joe Flood, first Coordinator of the Urban Indicators Program, following a statistical analysis of city indicators data. Calculating the City Development Index The City Development Index is calculated according to the formulae in the table below. It has separate sub-indices for Infrastructure, Waste Management, Health, Education, and City Product, which are averaged to form the CDI. Each sub-index is a combination of several indicators that have been normalized to give a value between 0 and 1. Because the variables used to make up the CDI are strongly related to each other, there are a number of ways to calculate the CDI that give almost identical results. For this report, the weightings given to each indicator have been initially calculated by a statistical process called Principal Components Analysis and then simplified. This formulation of the index by and large uses the same formulae as in UNDP Human Development Report 1999, for the Health, Education and City Product sub-indices. For meaningful ranking of cities, the index requires data that are essentially complete, robust and precise - so not many variables are suitable. All the underlying data had to be checked for accuracy and completeness. Where there were missing data or based on very inaccurate estimates, they were either replaced by data from another national city of similar size, by country-wide figures or national urban data, if available or by figures for a nearby city or place at a similar level of development but only if absolutely necessary. Also, Formal waste disposal or Wastewater treated is taken as zero if not provided. Where City Product was not provided, it was calculated so that City Product x Household size = 0.45 x Mean Household Income which is similar to the main estimation formula. For most transition countries 0.35 x Household Income is used since, in transition economies, much GDP goes into indirect services and subsidies. The resultant city products must be somewhere in the vicinity of the National GDP per person, otherwise household incomes are presumed incorrect and adjusted. Calculating the CDI Subsequently several changes were made to the index by Dr Flood in work for the Asian Development Bank, to include telecommunications data. Other additions have been made by consultants in practical applications.

                                               

City limits

City limit/boundary refer to the defined boundary or border of a city. The area within the city limit can be called the city proper. Town limit/boundary and village limit/boundary apply to towns and villages. Similarly, corporate limit is a legal name that refers to the boundary of municipal corporations. In some countries, the limit of a municipality may be expanded through annexation.

                                               

City manager

A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities.