A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an administration. There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry, and other types of public body established by government. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character, since different types of organizations are most often constituted in an advisory role - this distinction is often blurred in practice however, it is not allowed. A government agency may be established by either a national government or a state government within a federal system. The term is not normally used for an organization created by the powers of a local government body. Agencies can be established by legislation or by executive powers. The autonomy, independence and accountability of government agencies also vary widely.
Civil authority or civilian authority, also known as civilian government, is the practical implementation of a state, other than its military units, that enforces law and order. It is also used to distinguish between religious authority and secular authority. The enforcement of law and order is typically the role of the police in modern states.
A government-organized non-governmental organization is a non-governmental organization that was set up or sponsored by a government in order to further its political interests and mimic the civic groups and civil society at home, or promote its international or geopolitical interests abroad.