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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are usually known as primary legislation. In addition, legislatures may observe and steer governing actions, with authority to amend the budget involved. The members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.



A legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are usually politicians and are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national, national, regional, or local.



In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a member of parliament or a legislator who occupies no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesman in the Opposition, being instead simply a member of the "rank and file". The term dates from 1855. The term derives from the fact that they sit physically behind the frontbench in the House of Commons. A backbencher may be a new parliamentary member yet to receive high office, a senior figure dropped from government, someone who for whatever reason is not chosen to sit either in the ministry or the opposition Shadow Ministry, or someone who prefers to be a background influence, not in the spotlight. By extension, those who are not reliable supporters of all of their partys goals and policies and have resigned or been forced to resign may be relegated to the back benches. For example, in recent British political events, Clive Lewis became a backbencher after resigning from Jeremy Corbyns shadow cabinet over Brexit, or Boris Johnson who became a backbencher again, after resigning as Foreign Secretary in Theresa Mays cabinet, also over Brexit. May herself returned to the backbenches after her resignation from the premiership, to be succeeded by Johnson. In most parliamentary systems, individual backbenchers have little power to affect government policy. However, they play a role in providing services to their constituents, in relaying the opinions and concerns of their constituents. For example, asking the government for funding for a project in their constituency. Some backbenchers also sit on parliamentary committees, where legislation is considered in more detail than there is time for on the floor of the House and, thereby, provide input into the legislative process. The Wright Committee reforms introduced in the UK provided backbenchers with much more power in committees, giving Parliament greater control of its agenda, increasing backbench membership in committees vastly. In addition, since backbenchers generally form the vast majority of MPs, collectively they can sometimes exercise considerable power especially in cases where the policies of the government are unpopular or when a governing party is internally split. Backbenchers carry considerable influence when the government majority is small, for example, Theresa Mays government from 2017 to 2019 was defeated sixteen times in the House of Commons; David Camerons majority government was defeated three times. In some legislative assemblies, sitting at the back of the chamber is not necessarily associated with having a minor role. In Switzerland, senior figures sit in the back rows in order to have a better overview and be closer to the doors for discussions outside the plenary. In Germany, the party leaders sit in the front row, but there are no designated places for other senior figures. The term backbenchers "Hinterbankler" therefore refers to largely unknown MPs without much influence, regardless of where they sit. Originally, the importance of the front rows for the leaders had also to do with the fact that acoustics were often unsatisfactory before microphones were introduced. The term "backbencher" has also been adopted outside parliamentary systems, such as the United States Congress. While legislative branches in presidential systems do not share the firm front bench/back bench dichotomy of the Westminster system, the term has been used to denote junior legislators, or legislators who are not part of party leadership within a legislative body. When Democrat Tim Ryan of Ohio challenged Nancy Pelosi of California for House Minority Leader in 2016, the Washington Post reported that he "emerged from the backbench - he literally sits on the last bench in the chamber".


Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an act of the legislature, or a statute. Bills are introduced in the legislature and are discussed, debated and voted upon.According to the social studies book of grade eight of Nepal The simple definition of bill is" The draft proposal for laws formulation presented in the federal parliament is called Bill” Edited by Utsab Dahal Class 8 Chitwan, Nepal


Board of supervisors

A board of supervisors is a governmental body that oversees the operation of county government in the American states of Arizona, California, Iowa, Mississippi, Virginia, and Wisconsin, as well as 16 counties in New York. There are equivalent agencies in other states. Similar to a city council, a board of supervisors has legislative, executive, and quasi-judicial powers. The important difference is that a county is an administrative division of a state, whereas a city is a municipal corporation; thus, counties implement and, as necessary, refine the local application of state law and public policy, while cities produce and implement their own local laws and public policy subject to the overriding authority of state law. Often they are concerned with the provision of courts, jails, public health and public lands.


Chamber of Deputies

Historically, French Chamber of Deputies was the lower house of the French Parliament during the Bourbon Restoration, the July Monarchy, and the French Third Republic; the name is still informally used for the National Assembly under the nations current Fifth Republic. The term "chamber of deputies" - although it was used as the name of the lower house of parliament in Burma, a former British colony - is not widely used by English-speaking countries, the more popular equivalent being "House of Representatives". It was also the official description of Dail Eireann the lower house of the Irish parliament during the period of the Irish Free State. In Malta, the House of Representatives is known, in Maltese, as Kamra tad-Deputati ". In Lebanon, the literal Arabic name of that countrys parliament is Majlis an-Nuwwab, or, "Chamber of Deputies" although officially used French and English translations are Assemblee Nationale and "National Assembly", respectively. A member of a "chamber of deputies" is generally called a "deputy", the definition of which is similar to that of "congressperson" or "member of parliament". The term "deputy" may be used to refer to any member of a legislative body or chamber; this usage is particularly common in those French- and Spanish-speaking countries whose parliaments or legislative chambers refer to themselves as "national assemblies"; the term is also used by Portugals Assembly of the Republic, and often in Ireland as a form of address when referring to members of Dail Eireann.