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Civil service

The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person so employed in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. Civil servants work for government departments, and answer to the government, not a political party. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are referred to as civil servants whereas country or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" sometimes called "QUANGOs" may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a states civil servants form its civil service or public service. An international civil servant or international staff member is a civilian employee who is employed by an intergovernmental organization. These international civil servants do not resort under any national legislation from which they have immunity of jurisdiction but are governed by internal staff regulations. All disputes related to international civil service are brought before special tribunals created by these international organizations such as, for instance, the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO. Specific referral can be made to the International Civil Service Commission ICSC of the United Nations, an independent expert body established by the United Nations General Assembly. Its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service.



The Amtmann or Ammann was an official in German-speaking countries of Europe and in some of the Nordic countries from the time of the Middle Ages whose office was akin to that of a bailiff. He was the most senior retainer of an Amt ; the administrative office of a territorial lord created to manage the estates of manors, castles and villages. The estates were both administrative as well as juridical districts. The Amtmann was usually a member of the nobility or a cleric. In towns, he was also often a member of the wealthy classes amongst the citizenship. He resided in an Amthaus or Amtshaus and collected taxes from the district, administered justice and maintained law and order with a small, armed unit. Later, the word Beamter superseded the older word Amtmann and has come to mean "official" or "civil servant". The word Amtmann is derived from ambet-ambachtos - "one sent round", Celtic: Latin ambactus "envoy", "herold", "servant", French, ambassadeur, "ambassador". By contrast, the Icelandic word ambatt, "female slave" and the Norwegian ambått "room maid", "maiden", emerged from the Celtic-Latin via Old German/Old Nordic. In Holstein during the Danish era to 1864 the Amtmann was the senior official of a sovereign department landesherrliches Amt. As head of the administration he was subordinate from 1546 to the ministry German Chancellery in Copenhagen. The Amtmann was also a secular judge of the trial court erster Instanz and, together with the Propst or provost, made up the ecclesiastical court or consistory Konsistorium. In a literary testimony to the office, Detlev von Liliencron wrote a ballad called "Pidder Lung" in which there is an Amtmann of Tonder, called Henning Pogwisch. In Switzerland the Ammann Amtmann was an office, since the Middle Ages, elected by the citizens who was the leader of the executive of a canton Landammann, a town Stadtammann or a parish Gemeindeammann.


Animal control service

An animal control service or animal control agency is an entity charged with responding to requests for help with animals ranging from wild animals, dangerous animals, or animals in distress. An individual who works for such an entity was once known as a dog catcher, but is generally now called an animal control officer, and may be an employee or a contractor – commonly employed by a municipality, county, shire, or other subnational government area.



Berufsverbot is an order of "professional disqualification" under German law. Berufsverbot may be translated into English as "professional ban". A Berufsverbot disqualifies the recipient from engaging in certain professions or activities on the grounds of their criminal record, political convictions or membership in a particular group.



The chinovnik was a Russian title for a person having a rank and serving in the civil or court service. The institution of chinovniks existed de facto in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, but until 1722 it did not have a clear structure. The de jure chinovnik institute was structured by the establishment of the Table of Ranks on February 4, 1722. "As the peasants were slaves of the landowners, the Russian people are still slaves of chinovniks", wrote Lenin in 1903, "Political freedom means the peoples right to choose all the chinovniks themselves". After the victory of the October Revolution in 1917, the Table of Ranks was abolished, and the institution of chinovniks was liquidated. Persons employed in the field of public administration became known as civil servants.


Civil service entrance examination

Civil service examinations are examinations implemented in various countries for recruitment and admission to the civil service. They are intended as a method to achieve an effective, rational public administration on a merit system for recruiting prospective politicians and public sector employees. The most ancient example of such exams were the imperial examinations of ancient China.