Топ-100 ⓘ Encyclopedia - Government - Bureaucratic inertia, Cabinet crisis, Caretaker

ⓘ Encyclopedia | Government - Bureaucratic inertia, Cabinet crisis, Caretaker government, Center of government, Citizen oversight, Citizenship, Civic lottery, Code enforcement ..


Bureaucratic inertia

Bureaucratic inertia is the supposed inevitable tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate the established procedures and modes, even if they are counterproductive and/or diametrically opposed to established organizational goals. This unchecked growth may continue independently of the organizations success or failure. Through bureaucratic inertia, organizations tend to take on a life of their own beyond their formal objectives.


Cabinet crisis

A cabinet crisis or government crisis is a situation when the government is challenged before the mandate period expires, because it threatens to resign over a proposal, or it is at risk at being dismissed after a motion of no confidence, a conflict between the parties in a coalition government or a coup detat. It may also be the result of there being no clear majority willing to work together to form a government. During this period a caretaker government with a limited mandate may take care of the day-to-day affairs of the state, while waiting for a snap election.


Caretaker government

A caretaker government is a temporary ad hoc government that performs some governmental duties and functions in a country until a regular government is elected or formed. Depending on specific practice, it usually consists of either randomly selected or approved members of parliament or outgoing members until their dismissal. Caretaker governments in representative democracies are usually limited in their function, serving only to maintain the status quo, rather than truly govern and propose new legislation. Unlike the government it is meant to temporarily replace, a caretaker government does not have a legitimate mandate electoral approval to exercise aforementioned functions.


Center of government

The center of government is the institution or group of institutions that provide direct support to the chief executive in leading the management of government. Unlike line ministries and other government agencies, the CoG does not deliver services directly to the citizens, and it does not focus on a specific policy area. On the contrary, the CoG performs cross-government functions. A similar concept is "Core Executive".


Citizen oversight

Citizen oversight, sometimes referred to as Civilian oversight, is the act of an assembly of citizens, a form of citizen participation, who review government activities. Activities may be deemed as government misconduct. Members of the group are civilians and are external to the government entity. These groups are tasked with direct involvement in the citizen complaints process and develop solutions to improve government accountability. Responsibilities of citizen oversight groups can vary significantly depending on the jurisdiction and their ability to become influential. Oversight should not criticize but improve government through citizen support for government responsiveness, accountability, transparency, and overall efficiency. Proactive citizen oversight improves transparency and demands accountability at all levels of government. Reporting and monitoring are now regarded as fundamental governance responsibilities. Citizen Advisory Boards are a way for citizens to be involved in government oversight. Other forms of government oversight include citizen committees, citizen panels, citizen juries, citizen initiatives, negotiated rulemaking, and mediation Citizen oversight shares similar aspects with Demarchy and the Jury system. An effective citizen oversight committee is structured to take on the following responsibilities: create processes for risk governance, monitoring and reporting; create clear defined duties to improve effectiveness and avoid overlapping work; recruit/retain members that are knowledgeable and engaged about policy; develop critiques that result in improved service outcomes; assign oversight responsibilities to designated individuals or groups for specific government functions; and reviews rolls regularly. Citizen oversight committees brainstorm ideas to improve transparency and create policy proposals. Most proposals regarding citizen oversight have been with respects to police activities, healthcare, non-profit and private sector. Proposals since the 1970s about police misconduct or government corruption have universally been met with resistance from authorities and did not gained much traction.



Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. The idea of citizenship has been defined as the capacity of individuals to defend their rights in front of the governmental authority. A person may have multiple citizenships. A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose territorial status is uncertain is a border-lander. Nationality is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a persons membership of a nation a large ethnic group. In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship.


Civic lottery

A civic lottery, a popular term for the contemporary use of sortition or allotment, is a lottery-based method for selecting citizens for public service or office. It is based on the premise that citizens in a democracy have both a duty and the desire to serve their society by participating in its governance. Today, the most common use of the civic lottery process is found in many Anglo-Saxon judicial systems where citizen juries are summoned to hear and render verdicts in court cases. The term for this is popularly known as jury duty. Civic lotteries are increasingly popular in Canada, where provincial Citizens Assemblies on Electoral Reform took place in British Columbia in 2004 and in Ontario in 2006. The membership of each Assembly was determined by a civic lottery which invited citizens to volunteer as candidates. In British Columbia, the government sent 23.034 letters to randomly identified citizens throughout the province. 1.715 replied and volunteered to serve as members of the Assembly. In Ontario, 123.489 citizens were identified during a random electronic draw from the Permanent Register of Electors. Each citizen received a letter inviting him or her to apply and 7.033 volunteered as candidates. Ultimately, during a final selection process 158 names were drawn from among the candidates to participate as members of the BC Assembly. 103 were selected as members in Ontario. MASS LBP, a Canadian company inspired by the work of the Citizens Assembly on Electoral Reform Ontario has developed an increasingly sophisticated system for running civic lotteries to randomly select citizens to participate on government advisory panels. The lotteries, which ask citizens to give up several consecutive weekends to participate on a panel, enjoy a strong positive response rate, typically exceeding five percent. This suggests that citizens are more interested public affairs than declining voter-turnout rates indicate. Panel members are randomly selected from among the pool of candidate-respondents to create a panel that roughly matches the demographic profile of the wider population.


Civilian control of the military

Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a countrys strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. The reverse situation, where professional military officers control national politics, is called a military dictatorship. A lack of control over the military may result in a state within a state. One author, paraphrasing Samuel P. Huntingtons writings in The Soldier and the State, has summarized the civilian control ideal as "the proper subordination of a competent, professional military to the ends of policy as determined by civilian authority". Civilian control is often seen as a prerequisite feature of a stable liberal democracy. Use of the term in scholarly analyses tends to take place in the context of a democracy governed by elected officials, though the subordination of the military to political control is not unique to these societies. One example is the Peoples Republic of China. Mao Zedong stated that "Our principle is that the Party commands the gun, and the gun must never be allowed to command the Party," reflecting the primacy of the Communist Party of China and communist parties in general as decision-makers in Marxist–Leninist and Maoist theories of democratic centralism. As noted by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill professor Richard H. Kohn, "civilian control is not a fact but a process". Affirmations of respect for the values of civilian control notwithstanding, the actual level of control sought or achieved by the civilian leadership may vary greatly in practice, from a statement of broad policy goals that military commanders are expected to translate into operational plans, to the direct selection of specific targets for attack on the part of governing politicians. National Leaders with limited experience in military matters often have little choice but to rely on the advice of professional military commanders trained in the art and science of warfare to inform the limits of policy; in such cases, the military establishment may enter the bureaucratic arena to advocate for or against a particular course of action, shaping the policy-making process and blurring any clear cut lines of civilian control.


Classification of the Functions of Government

Classification of the Functions of Government is a classification defined by the United Nations Statistics Division. These functions are designed to be general enough to apply to the government of different countries. The accounts of each country in the United Nations are presented under these categories. The value of this is that the accounts of different countries can be compared.


Code enforcement

Code enforcement, sometimes encompassing law enforcement, is the act of enforcing a set of rules, principles, or laws and ensuring observance of a system of norms or customs. An authority usually enforces a civil code, a set of rules, or a body of laws and compel those subject to their authority to behave in a certain way. In the United States, those employed in various capacities of code enforcement may be called Code Enforcement Officers, Municipal Regulations Officers, or with various titles depending on their specialization. In the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, various names are used, but the word Warden is commonly used for various classes of non-police enforcement personnel. In Canada and some Commonwealth Countries, the term Bylaw Enforcement Officer is more commonly used, as well as Municipal Law Enforcement Officer or Municipal Enforcement Officer. In Germany order enforcement offices are established under the states laws and local regulations under different terms like Ordnungsamt order enforcement office, Ordnungsdienst order enforcement service, Gemeindevollzugsdienst municipal code enforcement office, Polizeibehorde police authority or Stadtpolizei city police for general-duty bylaw enforcement units. Various persons and organizations ensure compliance with laws and rules, including: Building inspector, an official who is charged with ensuring that construction is in compliance with local codes. Parking enforcement officer, an official who is charged with enforcing street parking regulations. Fire marshal, an official who is both a police officer and a firefighter and enforces a fire code. Zoning enforcement officer, an official who is charged with enforcing the zoning code of a local jurisdiction, such as a municipality or county. Health inspector, an official who is charged with ensuring that restaurants meet local health codes. Police forces, charged with maintaining public order, crime prevention, and enforcing criminal law.